Yogyakarta also Jogja or Jogjakarta) is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of education (Kota Pelajar), classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1575 and 1640. The city is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta, "prosperous, flourishing" (i.e., "a city that is fit to prosper"). Its population was 388,627 inhabitants at the 2010 census and its built-up (or metro) area was home to, 4,010,436 inhabitants spread on 2 cities (Yogyakarta and Magelang) and 65 districts spread on Sleman, Klaten, Bantul, Kulon Progo and Magelang regencies. While urbanization sprawls, Yogyakarta-Magelang and Surakarta are being agglomerated in a few years. The Dutch name of the city is Djokjakarta.

Yogyakarta is a bustling town of some half a million people and the most popular tourist destination on Java, largely thanks to its proximity to the temples of Borobudur and Prambanan. The town is a hub of art and education, offers some good shopping and has a wide range of tourist facilities. Strictly speaking, the city (kota) of Yogyakarta is only one of five districts within the semi-autonomous region of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), literally the "Yogyakarta Special Region". (The other districts are Sleman on the slopes of fiery Mount Merapi to the North, Bantul all the way to the sea to the South, the hills of Gunungkidul to the East and the low lands of Kulon Progo to the West.)

This special status is thanks to the Sultanate of Hamengkubuwono, which has ruled the area since 1755 and steered the state through difficult times of occupation and revolution. During the Indonesian war of independence, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX offered the fledgling Indonesian government his enclave as capital city, thus Yogyakarta became the revolutionary capital city of the republic from 1946 to 1949 when Jakarta was still occupied by the Dutch. As a result, the central government recognized the Sultan of Yogyakarta as the appointed governor of Yogyakarta Special Region; the only one in Indonesia that is not elected directly by the people.

The Indonesian central government has tried to weaken the sultan's power by calling for direct election for the governor, however the present Sultan Hamengkubuwono X was chosen by an overwhelming majority. Alas, Yogyakarta lies in one of the most seismically active parts of Java and has thus repeatedly been struck by earthquakes and volcano eruptions. The worst in recent times was the earthquake of 27 May 2006, which killed over 6,000 people and flattened over 300,000 houses. However, the epicentre was 25km north of the city, which thus avoided the worst of the quake, and a surprisingly effective disaster recovery effort saw most of the physical damage repaired quite quickly. Only four years later, in October 2010, the nearby volcano of Mount Merapi erupted, spewing lava over nearby villages, the Borobodur and killing 353 people. After rumbling on and off for two months, the volcano quieted down by December 2010.

Mount Bromo East Java
Mount Bromo (Indonesian: Gunung Bromo), is an active volcano and part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 metres (7,641 ft) it is not the highest peak of the massif, but is the most well known. The massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of Brahma, the Hindu creator god.

Sulfur is collected from inside the caldera by workers. Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a vast plain called the "Sea of Sand" (Javanese: Segara Wedi or Indonesian: Lautan Pasir), a protected nature reserve since 1919. The typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is also possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan (2,770 m or 9,088 ft) (Indonesian: Gunung Penanjakan).

The viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can also be reached on foot in about two hours. Depending on the degree of volcanic activity, the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Disaster Hazard Mitigation sometimes issues warnings against visiting Mount Bromo.

Culture
On the fourteenth day of the Hindu festival of Yadnya Kasada, the Tenggerese people of Probolinggo, East Java, travel up the mountain in order to make offerings of fruit, rice, vegetables, flowers and sacrifices of livestock to the mountain gods by throwing them into the caldera of the volcano. The origin of the ritual lies in the 15th century legend where a princess named Roro Anteng started the principality of Tengger with her husband, Joko Seger. The couple were childless and therefore beseeched the assistance of the mountain gods. The gods granted them 24 children but stipulated that the 25th child, named Kesuma, must be thrown into the volcano as a human sacrifice. The gods' request was implemented. The tradition of throwing sacrifices into the volcano to appease these ancient deities continues today and is called the Yadnya Kasada ceremony. Though fraught with danger, some locals risk climbing down into the crater in an attempt to recollect the sacrificed goods that they believe could bring them good luck. On the Segara Wedi sand plain sits a Hindu temple called Pura Luhur Poten.

The temple holds a significant importance to the Tenggerese scattered across the mountain villages, such as Ngadisari, Wonokitri, Ngadas, Argosari, Ranu Prani, Ledok Ombo and Wonokerso. The temple organises the annual Yadnya Kasada ceremony which lasts for about one month. On the 14th day, the Tenggerese congregate at Pura Luhur Poten to ask for blessings from Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa and the God of Mahameru (Mount Semeru). Then the crowd proceeds along the crater edges of Mt Bromo where offerings are thrown into the crater. The major difference between this temple and Balinese ones are the type of stones and building materials.

Pura Luhur Poten uses natural black stones from volcanoes nearby, while Balinese temples are mostly made from red bricks. Inside this pura, there are several buildings and enclosures aligned in a mandala zone composition.

Mount Ijen East Java
The Ijen volcano complex is a group of stratovolcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia. It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometers wide. The Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the highest point of that complex.


The name "Gunung Merapi" means "mountain of fire" in the Indonesian language (api being "fire"); Mount Merapi in central Java and Marapi in Sumatra have the same etymology. West of Gunung Merapi is the Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometer-wide turquoise-colored acidic crater lake.

The lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor. The work is paid well considering the cost of living in the area, but is very onerous. Workers earn around Rp 50,000 - 75,000 ($5.50-$8.30) per day and once out of the crater, still need to carry their loads of sulfur chunks about three kilometers to the nearby Paltuding Valley to get paid. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones run east-west across the southern side of the caldera.

The active crater at Kawah Ijen has a diameter of 722 metres (2,369 ft) and a surface area of 0.41 square kilometres (0.16 sq mi). It is 200 metres (660 ft) deep and has a volume of 36 cubic hectometres (29,000 acre·ft). The lake is recognised as the largest highly acidic crater lake in the world. It is also a source for the river Banyupahit, resulting in highly acidic and metal-enriched river water which has a significant detrimental effect on the downstream river ecosystem. In 2008, explorer George Kourounis took a small rubber boat out onto the acid lake to measure its acidity. The pH of the water in the crater was measured to be 0.5 due to sulfuric acid

Blue Fire Crater Since National Geographic mentioned the electric-blue flame of Ijen, tourist numbers increased.[citation needed] The phenomenon has occurred for a long time, but beforehand there was no midnight hiking. A two-hour hike is required to reach the rim of the crater, followed by a 45-minute hike down to the bank of the crater. The blue fire is ignited sulphuric gas, which emerges from cracks at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius (1,112 degrees Fahrenheit). The flames can be up to 5 meters (16 feet) high; some of the gas condenses to liquid and is still ignited. It is the largest blue flame area in the world and local people refer to it as 'Blue Fire'

Sulfur mining at Ijen
An active vent at the edge of the lake is a source of elemental sulfur, and supports a mining operation. Escaping volcanic gases are channelled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The sulfur, which is deep red in color when molten, pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it cools. The miners break the cooled material into large pieces and carry it away in baskets. Miners carry loads ranging from 75 kilograms (165 lb) to 90 kilograms (200 lb), up 300 metres (980 ft) to the crater rim, with a gradient of 45 to 60 degrees and then 3 kilometers (1.86 miles) down the mountain for weighing. Most miners make this journey twice a day. A nearby sugar refinery pays the miners by the weight of sulfur transported; as of September 2010, the typical daily earnings were equivalent to approximately $13 US. The miners often receive insufficient protection while working around the volcano and complain of numerous respiratory afflictions. There are 200 miners, who extract 14 tons per day - about 20 percent of the continuous daily deposit.

Itinerary:
Day 1 : Arrival in Yogyakarta
You will be picked up from Yogyakarta’s airport then dropped to your hotel. Free program.

Day 2 : Yogyakarta City Tour - Borobudur Tour
Go around Yogyakarta to visit Kraton (Sultan Royal Palace), Taman Sari (Water Castle) and Silver works. After that, go to Borobudur temple including Pawon and Mendut temples for sightseeing. Stay overnight in a hotel in Yogyakarta.

Day 3 : Prambanan - Surakarta tour - Mount Bromo
After having a breakfast, go to Prambanan temple, then tour around Surakarta to visit Mangkunegaran Palace and Klewer market. Continue your tour to Bromo and stay overnight there.

Day 4 : Pananjakan Bromo - Ijen crater
At 03.30 am, you will be picked up by jeep to go to Pananjakan view point to see the sunrise. After that, go to Mt. Bromo by jeep. After spending time in Mt. Bromo, you get back to your hotel for breakfast, shower, and check out before going to Ijen and stay overnight there.

Day 5 : Ijen trekking - Surabaya or Ketapang harbor
After having breakfast, you depart to Mt. Ijen. Ijen crater is a volcano crater, around 1 km in diameter and 175 meter deep. Then go to Juanda Airport in Surabaya or Ketapang Harbor. End of our service. Rate : USD 550/person/twin share, minimum 2 person

Places of interest :
- Sultan palace
- Tamansari water castle
- Silver works
- Borobudur temple
- Pawon temple
- Mendut temple
- Prambanan temple
- Mangkunegaran palace
- Klewer market
- Mount Bromo
- Ijen What is

included in the tour package :
- Accommodation (twin share)
- Transportation : Car/Minivan/Bus
- 3 Meals
- Local tour guide
- Entrance fee for the tourist attraction as programs
- Parking fee
- Donation
- Mineral water

What is not included yet in the tour package :
- Personal expenses, Optional tour, Additional meals
- Airfare, Airport tax, Porter
- Tipping Guide and Driver
- Travel insurance
- Alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks